Surgical sperm retrieval is a treatment recommended for men with Azoospermia condition when there is blockage of the tube for sperm passage or absence of sperm in ejaculation. There are two methods; the PESA and the TESA. The PESA, (percutaneous epidydimal sperm aspiration), is a method where sperm is collected from the epididymis inside the scrotum using a syringe and fine needle. TESA, (testicular sperm aspiration), is a method where sperm is retrieved directly from the testicles.
This is the final step in which the embryos are placed into the uterine cavity on the third day after fertilisation without disturbing the milieu of the endometrium.
Egg donors are resources for women with no eggs due to surgery, chemotherapy, or genetic causes or with poor egg quality, previously unsuccessful IVF cycles or advanced maternal age. In the egg donor process, eggs are retrieved from a donors ovaries, fertilized in the laboratory with the sperm from the recipient s partner and the resulting healthy embryos are returned to the recipient s uterus.
Cryopreservation of embryos is the process of preserving an embryo at sub-zero temperatures, generally at an embryogenesis stage corresponding to pre-implantation, that is, from fertilisation to the blastocyst stage. This process is very useful in OHSS -PCOD patients.
The main techniques used for embryo cryopreservation are vitrification versus slow programmable freezing (SPF). Studies indicate that vitrification is superior or equal to SPF in terms of survival and implantation rates. By cryopreservation, eggs, sperm, embryo and reproductive tissue can be preserved for later IVF.
Human oocyte cryopreservation (egg freezing) is novel technology in which a woman s eggs (oocytes) are extracted, frozen and stored. Later when she is ready to become pregnant, the eggs can be thawed, fertilized and transferred to the uterus as embryos.
Oocyte cryopreservation is aimed at three particular groups of women: Those diagnosed with cancer who have not yet begin chemotherapy or radiotherapy, those undergoing treatment with assisted reproductive technologies who do not consider embryo freezing an option and those who would like to preserve their future ability to have children either because they do not yet have a partner or for other personal or medical reasons.
Surrogacy via a gestational carrier is an option when a patient s medical condition prevents a safe pregnancy, when a patient has ovaries but no uterus due to congenital absence or previous surgical removal and where a patient has no ovaries and is also unable to carry a pregnancy to full term.